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break and continue

break terminates the current loop. The program continues after the loop.
var words = 'blue white red';
var indexFirstSpace = -1;
for (var i = 0; i < words.length; i++) {
  if (words.charAt(i) === ' ') {
    indexFirstSpace = i;
    break;
  }
}
If the character with the index i in words is a space, the if condition is fulfilled. indexFirstSpace gets the value of the loop variable i. Now, break will be executed. The loop will be terminated and the program execution continues after the loop.

continue terminates the current loop iteration. The program execution jumps to the loop head.
var sum = 0;
for (var i = 0; i < 10; i++) {
  if (i % 2 === 0) {
    continue;
  }
  sum = sum + i;
}
If i is an odd number, the following applies: i modulo 2 = 1. The if condition is not fulfilled. Code execution continues after if and i is added to sum. If i is an even number, the following applies: i modulo 2 = 0. The if condition is fulfilled and continue will be excecuted. The code execution jumps directly to the loop head. i is not added to sum. So all odd numbers smaller than 10 are added up.

break and continue can be used in all loops (for, while, do...while).

Exercise

Write a function isPrime that checks whether a passed number is prime. In case of a prime number it should return true, otherwise false. The call isPrime(2) should return true and isPrime(4) should return false.